(Newsroom America) -- Consumer Reports says tests of more than 60 rice and rice products showed inorganic arsenic, a known human carcinogen, was found in most of the name brand and other rice product samples. It said levels varied, but were significant in some samples.
The USA Rice Federation responded saying Consumer Reports has failed to add meaningfully to the public discourse and the article is incomplete and inaccurate on many levels.
"It employs an 'arsenic content standard' that simply doesn't exist in federal law," it said in a statement.
Arsenic can enter soil or water due to weathering of arsenic-containing minerals in the earth, but the U.S. is the world's leading user of arsenic, and since 1910 about 1.6 million tons have been used for agricultural and industrial purposes, about half of it only since the mid-1960s.
While there are federal limits for arsenic in drinking water, there aren't many standards for arsenic in food.
Earlier this year, Consumer Reports found "worrisome levels" of arsenic in apple and grape juices and called on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to set limits for arsenic in those juices. Based on its latest findings and analysis, Consumer Reports is asking the government to take additional steps, including urging the FDA to set limits for arsenic in rice and rice products.
"The goal of our report is to inform—not alarm—consumers about the importance of reducing arsenic exposure and offer actions they can take moving forward, such as limiting their rice consumption," said Urvashi Rangan, Ph.D., Director of Safety and Sustainability at Consumer Reports.
"Given what we now know about arsenic's increasing role in contributing to multiple cancers and other serious health effects, the government needs to regulate arsenic in food. This includes setting standards and banning the practices that persistently deliver arsenic into our food and water supply."
Consumer Reports tested a range of rice products including infant cereals, hot cereals, ready-to-eat cereals, rice cakes, rice crackers, rice pasta, rice flour, and rice drinks and found varying, but measurable amounts of total arsenic -- including inorganic and organic forms -- in samples of almost every product tested.
Inorganic arsenic is a known carcinogen that can cause bladder, lung, and skin cancer. Two organic forms measured−called DMA and MMA−are classified as possible carcinogens.
Consumer Reports' study provides a snapshot of the market, with many products purchased in the New York metropolitan area and online this past spring. It is too limited to provide general conclusions about individual brands or categories of rice products but there were notable findings.
* White rice grown in Arkansas, Louisiana, Missouri, and Texas generally had higher levels of total arsenic and inorganic arsenic than rice samples from elsewhere (India, Thailand and California combined). * Within tested brands offering brown and white rice versions, brown rice had higher average total and inorganic arsenic than their white rice counterparts. * Some brown rice samples were lower in arsenic compared to some white rice samples which may be explained by agricultural practices or geographic location. *Infant rice cereals and drink products also contained worrisome levels of arsenic.
Consumer Reports advises that children under the age of 5 not be given rice drinks as part of their daily diet, similar to advice given in the United Kingdom regarding rice milk.
People who ate rice had arsenic levels that were at least 44 percent greater than those who had not according to Consumer Reports' analysis of federal health data. Certain ethnic groups were more highly affected, including Mexicans, other Hispanics, and a broad category that included Asians.
A chart identifying arsenic levels for each sample Consumer Reports along with complete report and analysis can be found online at www.ConsumerReports.org.
Because Consumer Reports found significant levels of inorganic arsenic it believes more must be done to reduce dietary exposure. It said:
* The FDA should set limits for arsenic in rice products as well as apple and grape juices as Consumer Reports has previously requested.
* The FDA should ban the feeding of arsenic-containing drugs to animals for that are used for the purpose of pigmentation, growth promotion, feed efficiency and disease prevention.
* The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) should phase out use of all arsenical pesticides.
* The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the EPA should end the use of arsenic-laden manure as fertilizer for all foods and halt the feeding of manure to animals.
"Consumers may be surprised to learn that similar to antibiotics, arsenic-containing drugs can be fed daily to chickens, turkeys, and pigs to promote growth, lower the levels of feed required, prevent disease in healthy animals, and color the meat," Dr. Rangan said.
"The manure of treated animals ends up containing arsenic too. It can also be used to fertilize food crops, which effectively introduces arsenic back into the food supply. We are asking the government to stop the cycling of arsenic in our food and water."
Consumers can reduce their overall exposure to arsenic:
* Rinse raw rice thoroughly before cooking and use a ratio of 6 cups water to 1 cup rice for cooking (draining the excess water afterward). Research has shown this can reduce arsenic levels. * Experiment with other grains. Though not arsenic-free, other studies have shown wheat and oats tend to have lower levels than rice. * Eat a varied diet to help minimize risk of exposure. * Keep in mind that some vegetables can accumulate arsenic when grown in contaminated soil. To help, clean vegetables thoroughly, especially potato skins.
The USA Rice Federation said it is important for consumers to know that arsenic is a naturally occurring element in our air, water, rocks and soil.
"This is how plants uptake arsenic. As a result, it's always been in the food supply and is in many healthy foods that are consumed by billions of people every day. No arsenical pesticides are used when growing U.S. rice.
"The fact is that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is not recommending consumers change their diet based on this article. We agree with FDA that any limits set for arsenic in rice products should be the result of a carefully conducted risk-assessment -- based on an adequate sample of well-constructed tests -- that balances any yet-to-be-validated 'risk' against years of sound research into rice's many nutritional benefits.
"The rice industry is committed to ensuring the quality and safety of rice and rice-based products. We will continue to work with regulators, including FDA, food scientists, nutritionists and manufacturers as they examine the issue. Additionally, we are conducting our own research to ensure that U.S. rice remains a safe, nutritious and affordable food for consumers," the Rice Federation said.
The rice industry has set up an information page at www.arsenicfacts.usarice.com